Patient-individualized bone-replacement products for regenerative medicine

Infiltration  of an additively manufactured structure with plasma.
© Fraunhofer IST, Falko Oldenburg
Infiltration of an additively manufactured structure with plasma.
Das 3. Ziel für nachhaltige Entwicklung der UN: Gesundheit und Wohlergehen
Das 12. Ziel für nachhaltige Entwicklung der UN: Verantwortungsvoller Konsum und Produktion


In the FAST project, challenges had to be resolved not only in terms of technology but also as regards materials science and biology. The task of the Fraunhofer IST was to develop plasma processes for coatings on the scaffolds that:

  • can be integrated into the 3D printing process
  • are biocompatible and storage-stable, and
  • promote cell adhesion and, ideally, differentiation.



As a result of our expertise in coating and process development, we were able to draw on existing experience, in particular for the selection of suitable coating formers for the control of cell adhesion. Our knowledge of plasma chemistry was utilized in order to make adjustments to the plasma system and its control. The extensive analytical equipment and our expertise in the analysis of chemically reactive surfaces made a decisive contribution towards the development of suitable plasma processes within the framework of the project. 


Added value 

The plasma pretreatment and coating of the scaffolds significantly improved the cell distribution and initial cellular processes. The application of plasma techniques in additive-manufacturing processes for biological and medical applications has therefore been successfully demonstrated. Currently, the IST is working on miniaturization of the plasma sources for improved integration capability. 

Further information on the reference project



Maria Cámara Torres, Ravi Sinha, Paolo Scopece, Thomas Neubert, Kristina Lachmann, Alessandro Patelli, Carlos Mota, Lorenzo Moroni

Tuning cell behavior on 3D scaffolds fabricated by atmospheric plasma assisted additive manufacturing

In: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2021) 13, 3, S. 3631–3644.

Funding reference

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© European Commission

This project has received funding from the European Union´s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 685825.

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