The atomic force and scanning tunnel microscope (AFM/STM) is especially well suited for very high resolutions. A surface is sampled with an ultra-fine tip, generating 3D images of the surface. Lateral resolutions of 1–10 mm and vertical resolutions of less than 1 nm are achieved. Monolayer steps can be resolved. AFM is especially well suited for the characterization of extremely smooth surfaces. Material contrasts can be represented using friction force microscopy or modulation techniques. Roughness, steps or grain sizes can be measured with AFM as well as more complex parameters such as skewness, kurtosis, power spectral density and so on. Samples up to 10 cm in diameter with a thickness up to 3 cm can be examined with the equipment at Fraunhofer IST.